- shoots and lower stalk are edible raw.
- growing tips of rhizome are edible raw.
- dried rhizome can be crushed to remove fibers, ground into flour.
- fresh rhizomes can be boiled into gruel. The gruel can either be dried and ground into flour or used wet in pancakes/breads.
- young rhizomes can be crushed and boiled to make sweet syrup.
- pollen can be pressed into cakes and baked or mixed with other flours.
- seeds are edible raw or parched.
- seeds can be ground into meal.
- sweet dried sap that exudes from the stem can be rolled into balls for storage.
- varieties in the Pacific Northwest are
Hard-stemmed bullrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and
Soft-stemmed bullrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani).
- grows in shallow calm water.