- sprouts are edible.
- seeds can be eaten raw.
- seeds can be dried, parched, ground lightly to break shells, and placed in water to separate shells from kernels.
- shells can be roasted to make coffee substitute.
- kernels can be ground into meal.
- kernels can be boiled in water to make gruel.
- kernels can be mixed with bone marrow or grease to make cakes.
- crushed seeds can be boiled in water and oil collected by skimming surface.
- varieties in the Pacific Northwest are
Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and
Prairie sunflower (Helianthus petiolaris).
- grows in open sites and disturbed areas.